was not as common in the ancient world as it is today. Prisons housed criminals awaiting trial. If there was no room in the jail, a pit or hole would be dug to hold the prisoner until his fate was decided (42:22).
The mentioned in 41:7 were fashioning idols. The craftsman would begin by making a mold from an existing image. He would then cast the new image in metal. The goldsmith would then add gold plating, smooth it out with a hammer, and burnish it to give it a shine.
The of the ancient Near East were not paved like many modern highways around the world today. Rather, they were maintained by the people living along the roads. They did their best to keep the roads level and free of obstacles (see 40:3).
Weaving on a loom involves warp threads, which are attached to the top and bottom of the loom, and weft threads, which are woven through the warp. When the weaver finishes a piece, he cuts the warp threads from the loom. When Hezekiah was ill, he felt as if he had been cut off from the loom of God’s presence (38:12).
was a traditional blessing found in both the historical and prophetic books of Israel (36:16; 1 Kings 4:25). It was a reward for trusting in the Lord. On the other hand, to lose those precious resources was a sign of God’s disfavor (Jer. 5:17).
(33:18) refers to tax collectors. If people couldn’t pay their taxes, their property might be seized or they might become forced laborers. If the official failed to collect all the taxes due, he himself was punished.